All the files remain untouched.
I went and did a system restore to a couple weeks before the initial BSOD occurred (the wonders of facebook...), and unfortunately it still seems to boot into a BSOD either while turning on, or, more often, when starting to use the computer significantly (seemingly the internet browsers, but I don't know if it's just that). However, in safe mode with networking, the browsers work just fine, and I am yet to get a BSOD -- even trying some more taxing things such as Netflix as a test. Granted, this will end up being enough to get me through using LaTeX and sending any necessary e-mails...but it would be nice to have it fully working even outside of safe mode.
So it seems as though one of the parts that aren't used during safe mode w/networking might be the culprit. Does this sound like anything?
(And thank you for all your help so far -- it's provided me with some options!)